Resources:Arts Districts, Design Districts & Cultural Districts

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The Current Instructional Project Briefs & Benefits That Can Help Lead To Sustainable Arts & Design-Based Community Development


_______________________  Member Resources: Chicago Office: 773.234.1880

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Over one hundred-sixty briefs (b:) and memoranda (m:) are available solely to Members, all addressing real issues, opportunities and hurdles faced by artists, board members, administrators and real estate developers as they work to plan, develop and manage their arts or cultural corridor. Training annotations follow for this sampling of the unique collection FIRST TEN BRIEFS & MEMORANDA, available from the foundation's Catalog & Exchange Page on this website through 30 September, 2008.

         0.    m1: The Big Picture, a comparison of ordinary cookie-cutter development v. destination development. 1 p

  1. m2: Sketch of art and design, corporate collection services, special event coordination and background information for ADI, a prelude to contract negotiations. 4pp
  2. m3: Address to artists in small cities recruiting them to join arts district efforts. 3pp
  3. b1: An introduction to planning a district to developers and owners of property that can be impacted by district undertakings. 3pp
  4. b2: Summary of alternative design approach for a MXD in a small city with historically significant sites nearby. 2pp
  5. b3: Definition of arts district for client, position statement, research outcomes, and includes a fact sheet as to planning work with client. 4pp
  6. m4: Festival Marketplace outline of objectives, definitions, artist and studio foci, steps in market creation and how a newly formed arts district association works with a developer/property owner. 3pp
  7. m5: Muralscape, early phase description for small city project, including background description as to how project fits with parallel development plans, the proposed objectives, a description as to how arts content will be related to both developer and arts district goals, audience definition, how local artists will be represented, how audiences will be approached, how the project fits the mission, and how the juried selection process can work. 3pp
  8. m6: Art Park, early phase description for small city project, including background description as to how project fits with parallel development plans, how art content correlates with both owner and district association goals, how audiences are defined, how local artists will participate, how the mission is supported, how target audiences are to be served, and how the juried selection process can work. 3pp
  9. m7: Black Box Theatre, early phase description for small city project, including background materials, how the development process will unfold, a thumbnail description of the theatre, how the project will be incorporated into a parallel development, a description of the range of proposals acceptable to the operating party, and a description of the presenter selection process. 4pp


WHO WE SERVE: A Select list of governments, corporations, foundations, institutions, universities, studios... more.

Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, by Arts District International (ADI)         Copies available, by special arrangement, only from GMSoultions: for order  information

The Tri-Annual Evaluation Guide for North American Arts, Design & Cultural Districts: Guide to Benefits | Questions for Our Staff | Call Us: 7AF new all points number: 309.343.7574 | M-Th 11-4 CST; Sa. 11-12N CST.

ECV = [(PV x Pcs - C) Pas] - D

Since 1979, the 7 Arts Foundation has been privately tracking the progress made by N. A. arts and cultural corridors. After over a quarter-century of observation, analysis and consultative work with arts and cultural corridor advocates, planners, developers and managers, a definitive text study, based upon survey outcomes collected every three seasons, is being underwritten to help governments, commercial operators, arts institutions and studios, and supporting foundations to determine the following:

  • The impact arts and cultural districts have on both commercial development and the arts communities they may, or may not, be serving;
  • The demographic profile of cultural tourists and a brief psychographic profile of the most likely participants;
  • The qualitative value of arts districts and arts agglomerations to artists, residents and visitors; and,
  • The quantitative value in clustering acclaimable arts-related activities and artist's living and working spaces amidst locally owned and operated businesses, public places and pedestrian-oriented, tourist-friendly destinations, stated as Economic Multipliers. What follows are the most commonly found Economic Multiplier Programs designed to  consistently increase value in many forms within districts: Programs designed to consistently -
  1. Increase value of Corridor Retail Properties
  2. Increase value of Corridor Commercial, Light Manufacture Properties
  3. Increase the value of Corridor Investment-quality Apartment, Condominium and Cooperative Properties
  4. Increase value in Family Dwelling Properties
  5. Increase Corridor and Tangent Neighborhood Wages and Benefits
  6. Increase Corridor Property and Franchise Taxes Collected
  7. Increase Corridor-situated Project Fees to Local, County and State Coffers
  8. Increase Corridor-based Retail and E-commerce Sales
  9. Increase Unrestricted Donations to Corridor-based Nonprofits
  10. Increase value of Corridor-situated Nonprofit Properties
  11. Increase value of New Rentals, Leases
  12. Increase Parking Revenues and Taxes
  13. Increase volume of Nonprofit Restricted Grants, Donations
  14. Increase frequency and dollar-volume for Corridor and Tangent Neighborhood New Construction
  15. Increase Corridor-specific New Business Investment
  16. Increase flow of Corridor-qualified New Business Loans
  17. Increase value of Corridor-specific In-Kind Contributions
  18. Increase return on both Historic Investment Tax Credit and Conventional Investment Properties
  19. Increase the flow of Local Tax Credits, Tax Deferrals, Abatements and speed the march toward TIFF districting
  20. Increase volume of Corridor-based Wholesale Revenues
  21. Increase Corridor-based billings for New Utilites' Use and many Insurance Underwriting Programs
  22. Increase flow of New Endowment Giving
  23. Increase the value of Local-County-State Real Property
  24. Increase billing volume for Local Legal-Accounting-Consulting-Security Firms
  25. Increase in Corridor-specific Nonprofit Dues-Paying Memberships
  26. Increase in the Goodwill Advantage Gained to Attract the Next Generation of Development and Re-development Participants

Since 1998, the foundation has been sending out questionnaires to its Member arts and cultural district artists, managers, administrators and board members. We have opened up the study to include all interested parties across the continent who wish to help us determine which arts or cultural districts are meeting their initial and subsequent claims, which are falling short, and which districts should be considered models of effectiveness, efficiency and mission-completeness.

Please e-mail the Resources Intern with a formal request to be included in the next study: or fax us your request to the field office: 309.343.7574 . You will receive a 6-page questionnaire and an invitation to have the staff profile your arts or cultural corridor in a future web page presentation. Thank you for supporting arts, design and cultural districts in North America.



A Perspective on the Arts Industry and the Economy, Bruce Seaman, Commissioned for the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, 1993 

A State Arts Agency Performance Measurement Toolkit, By Kelly Barsdate, Ann McLarty-Jackson, Research Assoc., November 1966, Copyright 1996 by National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, NASAA, Washington, DC

A Stroll With William James, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1983 by Jacques Barzun, The University of Chicago Press & Harper & Row, Publishers

"A Surfeit of Fine Art", by Jacques Barzun, Harper's Magazine, July, 1986

A Study of the Economic Importance of the Arts and Arts Education in Mississippi, Jorja Pound Turnispeed, Giacomo M. Oliva, Charles A. Campbell, Steven C. Hardin, Mississippi State University, a Mississippi Arts Commission presentation, 1991

A Word Or Two Before You Go, By Jacques Barzun

American Canvas, Gary O. Larson, National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, 1997

American Dance 1992: Who's Watching? Who's Dancing?, Jack R. Lemmon, A National Endowment for the Arts text, Washington, DC 1996

The American University, By Jacques Barzun, 1968

Americans, Latinos and Native Americans, American Assn. if Fund-Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy, New York, NY, 1999

Architecture And The Corporation, The Creative Intersection, By Thomas Walton, Copyright 1988 by the Trustees of Columbia University, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY 

The Architecture of Museums, By Francisco Asensio Cerver, Paco Asensio, Ed., Mark Lodge, Translator, Copyright 1997 by Francisco Asensio Cerver, Hearst Books International, New York, NY 

ART, culture & ENTERPRISE, The Politics of Art and the Cultural Industries, By Juston Lewis, Copyright 1990 by Justin Lewis, Routledge, London, England, UK 

Art For Whom?, By Richard Cork, Serpentine Gallery, Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978 

The Artist's Guide To His Market, By Betty Chamberlain, Copyright 1970 by Watson-Guptill Publications, New York, NY

The Artist's Resource Handbook, By Daniel Grant, Copyright 1994 by Daniel Grant, Allworth Press and American Council for the Arts (co-publishers)

Artists Who Work with Their Hands: Painters, Sculptors, Craft Artist and Artist Printmakers - A Trend Report, 1970-1990, Joan Jeffri, Robert Greenblatt, A Sommissioned Report for the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, 1994

The Arts: A Competitive Advantage for California, California Arts Council, KPMG Peat Marwick, Washington, DC: Policy Economics Group, 1994

Arts and Culture and the Quality of Life in Michigan Part I: The Influence of the Arts and Michigan's Anchor Organizations, Michigan Council for the Arts and Cultural Affairs, Wayne State University, Center for Arts and Public Policy of the College of Fine, Performing and Communication Arts, Detroit, MI, 1996

Arts and the Kentucky Economy, Eric C. Thompson, Mark C. Berger, Steven N. Allen, Center for Business and Economic Research, Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1998

The Arts and the Public Purpose, American Assembly, The 92nd American Assembly

Arts Calendar, Akron, OH, Akron Area Arts Calendar, 1999

The Arts Equation, Forging A Vital Link Between Performing Artists & Educators, By Bruce D. Taylor, Copyright 1999 by Bruce D. Taylor, Watson-Guptill, New York, NY 

Arts Funding: An Update on Foundation Trends, Loren Renz, Steven Lawrence, The Foundation Center/Grantmakers in the Arts, New York, NY, 1998

Arts in Action, A Directory of the Lima Arts Network, Lima, OH, Lima Arts Network

Arts in Our Community, Cambridge, OH, Arts in Our Community, 1999

The Arts Industry in Louisiana: Investing in People and Places, Morrison & Associates: A Report to the Louisiana Division of the Arts, 1995

The Arts Management Reader, By Alvin H. Reiss Copyright by Alvin H. Reiss, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, York 

Athens Area Arts Alliance Directory, Athens. OH, Athens Area Arts Alliance, 1999

The Bankers' Handbook, William H. Baughn & Charls E. Walker, Eds., Copyright 1966 and 1978 by Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, IL 

Begin Here: The Forgotten Conditions of Teaching and Learning, By Jacques Barzun, University of Chicago Press, 1991

Berlioz And The Romantic Century, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1950, 1969 by Jacques Barzun

The Bibliophile of the Future: His Complaints about the Twentieth Century, by Jacques Barzun, 1976

Building A Culture: A Cultural Plan for Findlay, Hancock County, OH, Wolf

Building Effective United Arts Funds, Richard C. McCauley, Ed., The National Coalition of United Arts Funds, The American Council for the Arts, 1993 

A Catalog of Crime, by Jacques Barzun & Wendell Hertig Taylor, 1971

Changing Minds, The Art and Science of Changing Our Own and Other People's Minds, by Howard Gardner, Copyright 2006 by Howard Gardner, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA 

The City of To-morrow And Its Planning, By Le Corbusier, Frederick Etchells, Translator, Copyright 1987 by Dover Publications, Inc. , Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY 

Classic, Romantic And Modern, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1943, 1961 by Jacques Barzun, The University of Chicago Press

Clio and the Doctors, by Jacques Barzun, 1974

Columbus Arts Market Study: Public Opinion Survey, Greater Columbus Arts Council, 1999

Commercial Real Estate Investing, By Jack Cummings, Copyright 2005 by Jack Cummings, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 

Communicating Technical Information, A Guide to Current Uses and Abuses in Scientific and Engineering Writing, By Robert R. Rathbone, Copyright 1966 by Addison-Wesley, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA

"The Critic, the Public, and the Sense of the Past", by Jacques Barzun, Salmagundi, Fall 1985-Winter 1986

Critical Questions On Music and Letters Culture and Biogrpahy 1940-1980, By Jacques Barzun, Bea Friedland, Ed., Copyright 1982 by The University of Chicago Press, The University of Chicago Press

Cultural Citizenship, Texas Commission on the Arts, TCA, Austin, TX, 1996

Cultural Facilities In Mixed-Use Development, By Harold Snedcof, Copyright 1985 by ULI, the Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC 

The Culture We Deserve, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1989 by Jacques Barzun, Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT

Culture Works: Arts and Cultural Education Directory, 2nd Ed., Culture Works Education Committee, Dayton, OH, 1997

The Cultures of Cities, By Sharon Zukin, Copyright 1995 by Sharon Zukin, Blackwell Publishers, Inc., Cambridge, MA 

Darwin, Marx And Wagner, Critique Of A Heritage, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1941, 1958 by Jacques Barzun, Doubleday Anchor Books

The Delights of Detection, by Jacques Barzun, 1961

Designing the City, A Guide for Advocates And Public Officials, By Adele Fleet Bacow, Copyright 1995 by Island Press, Island Press, Washington, DC

"Donations to Charity Rise 7.5%", Marilyn Dickey, Domeneca Marchetti, The Chronicle of Philanthropy [essay on-line]:, accessed 1998 

Downtown, Inc., By Bernard J. Frieden & Lynne B. Sagalyn, Copyright 1989 by MIT Press, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 

The Economic Impact of the Arts in North Dakota, Doris Hertsgaard, Bette Midgarden, Statistical Associates, Inc., Fargo, ND, prepared for the ND Council on the Arts, 1985

The Economic Impact of the Arts on New York City and New York State - Executive Summary, New York State Council on the Arts, Alliance for the Arts - Arts Research Center, New York, NY, 1997

The Economic Impact of the Florida Arts and Culture Industry, William Stronge, Florida Atlantic University, Regional Research Associates, Inc., a Florida Cultural Action and Education Alliances presentation, Boca Raton, FL, 1994

Economic Impact of the Montgomery County Arts and Cultural District, Montgomery County Regional Arts and Cultural District,, University of Dayton, Center for Business and Economic Research, Dayton, OH 1996

The Economic Value of the Arts in Missouri - Three Studies, Anthony L. Loman, Gary L. Siegel, Institute of Applied Research, commissioned by the Missouri Arts Council, St. Louis, MO, 1990

Economic Impact of Utah Museums on the Local Economy, Utah Museums Association, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Utah, David Eccles School of Business, Salt Lake City, UT, 1995

Egotopia, Narcissism and the New American Landscape, By John Miller, Copyright 1997 by The University of Alabama Press, The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL 

The Energies of Art, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1956 by Jacques Barzun, Vintage Books

Entertainment Industry Economics, A Guide for Financial Analysis, By Harold L. Vogel, Copyright 1994 by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY

An Essay on French Verse for Readers of English Poetry, by Jacques Barzun, 1991

An Examination of Community Interest in Arts and Culture in the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area, Princeton Survey Research Associates, Princeton, NJ, January, 1998

Excellence, Can We Be Equal And Excellent Too?, By John W. Gardner, Copyright 1961 by John W. Gardner, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, NY 

extraordinary OFFICES, By Francisco Asensio Cerver, Paco Asensio, Ed., Copyright 1998 by Francisco Asensio Cerver, Watson Guptill, New York, NY

"The Fallacy of the Single Cause", by Jacques Barzun, see The Culture We Deserve

Fast-Track Business Growth, By Andrew J. Sherman, Copyright 2001 by the Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc., Kiplinger Books and Tapes, Washington, DC

Four More Sidelights on Opera at Glimmerglass: 2001-2004, by Jacques Barzun, 2004 

Free Money For People In The Arts By Laurie Blum, Copyright 1991 by Laurie Blum, Collier Books, New York, NY

The French Race: Theories of Its Origins and Their Social and Political Implications, by Jacques Barzun, 1932

From Dawn To Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 2000 by Jacques Barzun, HarperCollins Publishers

Foundation Growth and Giving Estimates: 2000 Preview, Loren Renz, Steven Lawrence, The Foundation Center, New York, NY, 2001

Give and Take, Reynold Levy, for the President and Fellows of Harvard College, Boston, MA, 1999

Giving USA 1998, American Association of Fund-Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy, New York, NY, 1998

Giving USA 1997, American Association of Fund-Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy, New York, NY, 1997 

Giving USA 1996, American Association of Fund-Raising Counsel Trust for Philanthropy, New York, NY, 1996

God's Country And Mine, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1954, Vintage Books

The House of Intellect, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1959 by Jacques Barzun, Harper & Brothers, Publishers, New York, NY

How To Survive & Prosper As An Artist, A Complete Guide To Career Management, By Caroll Michels, Copyright 1983 by Caroll Michels, Henry Holt & Company, New York, NY

In Art We Trust, The Board of Trustees in The Performing Arts, By Robert W. Crawford,  Copyright 1981 by Foundation for the Extension and Development of the American Professional Theatre, FEDAPT, New York, NY 

In What Sprits Do Americans Cultuvate the Arts? A Review of Survey Questions on the Arts, Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society, 1997

"The Insoluble Problem: The Patronage of Art", by Jacques Barzun, Proceedings of the American Philosphical Society 131, no. 2, 1987

Investigating Audiences, Audience Surveys In The Visual Arts, By Sara Selwood, Copyright 1991 by Sara Selwood, London Arts Board

The Investment Manager's Handbook, Sumner N. Levine, Ed., Copyright 1980 by Dow Jones-Irwin, Dow-Jones-Irwin, Homewood, IL 

A Jacques Barzun Reader, by Jacques Barzun, 2002

Jobs In Arts And Media Management, By Stephen Langley, James Abruzzo, Copyright 1990 by Stephen Langley and James Abruzzo, American Council for the Arts and Allworth Press (co-publishers), New York, NY

John Jay Chapman: Writings, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1957 by Jacques Barzun, Anchor Books

Keys To Investing In Real Estate, By Jack P. Friedman and Jack C, Harris, Copyright 1989, 1993, 2000 by Barron's Educational Series, Inc., Barron's Educational Series, Inc., Hauppauge, NY

Lincoln, The Literary Genius, by Jacques Barzun, 1960

Lincoln's Philosophic Vision, by Jacques Barzun, 1982

Looking Ahead: Private Sector Giving to the Arts and Humanities, Nina Kressner Cobb, President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, Washington, DC, 1996

Make Money with Condominiums And Townhouses, By Gary W. Eldred, PhD., Copyright 2003 by Gary W. Eldred, PhD., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 

Managing A Nonprofit, By John Riddle with Tere Drenth, Copyright 2002 by John Riddle, Adams Media Corporation, Avon, MA 

Market The Arts!, Joseph V. Melillo, Ed., Copyright 1983 by Foundation for the Extension and Development of the American Professional Theatre, FEDAPT, New York, NY 

Marketing The Public Sector, Promoting the Causes of Public and Nonprofit Agencies, By Seymour H. Fine, Copyright 1992 by Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ 

Measuring and Assessing Organizations, By Andrew H. Van deVen & Diane L. Ferry, Copyright 1980 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY 

Measuring Impacts Toolkit, The CDVCA Return on Investment Project, Copyright 2005 by The Community Development Venture Capital Alliance, New York, NY 

Measuring Your Arts Economy, Twelve Questions And Answers About Economic Impact Studies, By Kelly J. Barsdate, Copyright 1997 by National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, NASAA, DC 

The Modern Researcher, By Jacques Barzun, Henry F. Graff, Copyright 1957 by Jacques Barzun and Henry F. Graff, Harbinger Books

Money For Artists, A Guide to Grants and Awards for Individual Artists, By Laura R. Green, ed., Camilla Brooks and Steven Fried, Researchers, Copyright 1987 American Council ofr the Arts and Center for Arts Information, American Council for the Arts and the Center for Arts Information

Museum Design, Planning And Building For Art, By Joan Darragh & James S. Snyder, Copyright 1993 by The American Federation of Arts and National Endowment for the Arts, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY 

Museum Governance, Mission Ethics Policy, By Marie C. Malaro, Copyright 1994 by Marie C. Malaro, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC 

Museums And Communities, The Politics of Public Culture, Ivan Karp, Christine Mullen Kreamer, Steven D. Lavine, Eds., Copyright 1992 by Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC

Music In American Life, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1956 by Jacques Barzun, Midland Books

The New Corporate Philanthropy, By Frank Koch, Copyright 1979 by Plenum Press, Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, NY 

The New Music: The Sense Behind the Sound, By Joan Peyser, 1971, Introduction by Jacques Barzun, Delacort Press

The New Tax Guide for Performers, Writers, Directors, Designers and Other Show Biz Folk, By R. Brendan Hanlon, Copyright 1988, 1991 by R. Brendan Hanlon, Limelight Editions, New York, NY

1997 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts: National Endowment for the Arts,, Research Division Report Number 39, NEA, Washington, DC, December, 1998

No Quick Fix (Planning), Frederic B. Vogel, Ed., Copyright 1985 by Foundation for the Extension and Development of the American Professional Theatre, FEDAPT, New York, NY

Northeast Ohio: Profile of the Cultural Community, Margaret Jane Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane, John Paul Lucci, Mandel Center for Nonprofit Organizations and The Cleveland Cultural Coalition, Cleveland, OH, Winter, 1997

"NSFRE: President to Call for Sector-Wide Standards on Cause Related Marketing," Walter Sczudlo, Michael Nilson, NSFRE News Release [on-line access] Go to : ask for a reprint of their news release/1999-05-25; accessed 1999

Of Human Freedom, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1939 by Jacques Barzun, Lippincott

On Writing, Editing, and Publishing, By Jacques Barzun, University of Chicago Press, 1971

The 100 Best Small Art Towns In America, By John Villani, Copyright 1994 by John Villani, John Muir Publications, Santa Fe, NM 

Organizational Behavior, By Gregory Moorhead & Ricky W. Griffin,  Copyright 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA

Performing Arts: The Economic Dilemna, By William J. Baumol & William G. Bowen, Copyright 1966 by The Twentieth Century Fund, Inc., The Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NY 

Pew Charitable Trusts [on-line resources - accessed 1998], content by Marc Golding, Caroline Marshall, Jane Culbert, Ilana Hardesty, Gina Perille, programs/cul/culwp.cfm

Philanthropy [on-line essay access], Philanthropy,, 1999

"Philanthropy and Culture: Patterns Context and Change," Margaret Jane Wyszomirski, Philanthropy and the Nonprofit Sector in a Changing America, The American Assembly, Bloomington, IN, 1999

Pleasure and Change, The Aesthetics of Canon, Frank Kermode, with Geoffrey Hartman, John Guillory, & Carey Perloff, Robert Alter, Ed., Copyright 2004 by the Regents of University of California, Oxford University Press, New York, NY 

Pleasures of Music, By Jacques Barzun, 1951 

Profiling the Impact of Arts and Culture: A Preliminary Report on Constructing Indexes, Louise Stevens, Margaret Wyszomirski, Spring Research Forum of the Independent Sector presentation, Alexandria, VA, 1997

Race: a Study in Modern Superstition, by Jacques Barzun, 1937

Recent Trends in State and Regional Arts Organizations, Joan T. Hocky, A Rockefeller Foundation Commissioned text, 1997

Reclaiming Our Cities & Towns, Better Living with Less Traffic, By David Engwicht, Copyright 1993 by David Engwicht, New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA

Report to the William Penn Foundation: Social Impact of the Arts Project, Mark J. Stern, Susan C. Seifert, Mary S. Petty, University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work,Philadelphia, PA, 1998

Romanticism and the Modern Ego, by Jacques Barzun, 1943

Samplings and Chronicles: Being the Continuation of the Philolexian Society History, with Literary Selections From 1912 to 1927, Jacques Barzun, ed. , 1927

"Scholarship versus Culture", by Jacques Barzun, The Atlantic, November, 1984

The Schooled Mind: Do the Arts Make a Difference? An Empirical Evaluation of the Hamilton Fairfield Spectra Plus Program, Richard L. Luftig, Miami University, Center for Human Development, Learning and Teaching, Oxford, OH, 1995

Science, The Glorious Entertainment, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1964 by Jacques Barzun, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, NY

Sidelights on Opera at Glimmerglass, by Jacques Barzun, 2001

Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers, by Jacque Barzun, 1975

 A Stroll with William James, by Jacques Barzun, 1983

Supporting Yourself As An Artist, A Practical Guide, By Deborah Hoover, Copyright 1985 by Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY

"Table 1.3: Household Contributions by Type of Charity," Independent Sector [on-line access], Go to and ask for a reprint of this research chart No. 11

Teacher in America, By Jacques Barzun, Copyright 1945 by Jacques Barzun, Anchor Books

Techniques of Financial Analysis, By Erich A. Helfert, Copyright 1963, 1967 and 1972 by Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Irwin-Dorsey Limited, Georgetown, Ontario, CN 

This Business Of Art, By Diane Cochrane, Copyright 1968 by Watson-Guptill Press, New York, NY

Three Talks at Northern Kentucky University, by Jacques Barzun, 1980

"Toward the Twenty-first Century", by Jacques Barzun, see The Culture We Deserve

Towards the Development of Arts and Culture Indicators in Inner City Community Building: Emergent Themes, Maria-Rosario Jackson, Independent Sector Research Forum, Washington, DC, 1997

The Triumph of the Arts for the Public, Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, Ed., Copyright 1979 by Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, Anchor Press 

Twenty Years of Economic Impact Studies of the Arts: A Review, Anthony J. Radich,Commissioned by the Research Office of the National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, 1990

The Urban Expeience, By Claude S. Fischer, Robert K. Merton, Ed., Copyright 1976 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., Chicago 

Urban Identities, Creating City Images Through Design, By Gail Deibler Finke, Copyright 1998 by Gail Deibler Finke, Madison Square Press, New York, NY

The Use And Abuse Of Art, By Jacques Barzun, The A. W. Mellon Lectures In The Fine Arts - 1973, Bollingen Series XXXV - 22, Princeton University Press, Copyright 1974 by the Trustees of The National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

A Word or Two Before You Go: Brief Essays on Language, by Jacques Barzun, 1986

"What Are Critics Good For?", The Annual Humanities Lecture, 92nd Street Y, New York, NY, Janualry 25, 1988 address

What Every Real Estate Investor Needs To Know About Cash Flow... And 36 Other Key Financial Measures, by Frank Gallinelli, Copyright 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY

What is a School? and Trim the College!, by Jacques Barzun, 2002 

What Man Has Built, by Jacques Barzun, 1967

What the hell do we want an artist here for?, By Sue Hercombe, Copyright 1986 by Calouste Gulbenken Foundation, Calouste Gulbenken Foundation, London, England, UK

Why the Wealthy Give: The Culture of Elite Philanthropy, Francie Ostrower, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ 1995


Source Citations


Thomas III, Marshall A. Thomas, MISSION MANIFESTO (Workshop Edition), a primer about a vision-mission revolution changing nonprofit institutions..., A Z Publishing Society Text, Co-published with the 7 Arts Foundation. Copyright 1995, 2000. Chicago, USA.

Oxford Universal Dictionary, Third Edition.


Copyright 2007 by 7 Arts Foundation. All rights reserved.





To ponder an important thought is to make an act; to act for lasting change is to invent a habit; to habituate soberly is to establish character; and, establishing character is to recognize something caring people will find worth pondering - anew; here, then is a way to view the genesis of an arts- design- culture- based destination district.

-- Copyright 2000 by Marshall Thomas &  Father Ambrose Press. Quote by Dr. Thomas apprears in the workshop edition of the text: ARTS DISTRICT BUILDING MANUAL  All rights reserved.



The following is an excerpt from the 2003 tri-annual study that analyses over one hundred Member efforts to plan and develop sustainable arts districts and cultural districts by including one or more of the following emphases. NOTE: The complete study can be purchased from GMSolutions by contacting jim@7artsfoundation .

ARTISTS  Artists attracted to the community... Arts studios and organizations can agree to be associated or affiliated with one another in broadly executed publicity, promotional and public relations terms...  Arts programmers of critically acclaimable quality presentations and productions can be scheduled for bookings at affordable rates within a district's season... Where three or more destinations generate a nexus of acclaimable activity...

BUSINESSES  Anchor hotel wants to develop a site on a tangent space to the proposed district area...  Major office complex owners want to develop a site on a tangent space to the proposed district area...  Employers can be convinced to make district-wide partnerships with resident arts studios and groups...  A recognition that venues do not draw people; creative, inventive, artful people lure many people drawn from important, highly studied groups...

DEVELOPERS  Sufficient number of underdeveloped properties within the proposed district...  Axis can be created or a 'superblock' schematic can be devised to suit both commercial and arts needs... Clusters of similar enterprises and arts expressions can be grouped together in downtown cachements as audience, artistry and/or consumer magnets... + 3 other outcomes---

GOVERNMENT  Public transit is available to the district area or can be scheduled for inclusion into the district within a suitable timeframe...  A parking garage is available or can be built within a suitable timeframe...  Public agencies are willing to help maintain the district sites...+7 other outcomes---

NEIGHBORS  A definable proximity of arts, arts advocacy and arts education sites in one sector...  No other comparable destination for residents and workers...  The resident population can be trained to think highly of touring, shopping and eating within the district... + 2 other outcomes---

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP  An excellent team of administrators, managers and creative visionaries can be recruited to govern, plan, develop and manage the district... Where the tapestry that defines the cherished values of the community, that locale reaches the heart of its people...  Both professional and volunteer-led management, marketing and long-term programming help insure sustainability when sites are linked, buildings restored and rehabilitated, and the overlay is revitalized...

PUBLIC MONOPOLIES  Utilities can be upgraded at a reasonable outlay within an agreeable timeframe... Public participants recognize the necessity of working with a diverse team devoted to serving a strong vision shared by private investors, building and open space owners, public stewards, artists, designers and cultural purveyors... Representatives from artist-run studios, firms and nonprofits make excellent advisory board and working board members...

TOURISTS  No other comparable destination for visitors within MSA...  Where the regional identity of the district resonates with the public imagination stronger than the image of any one of its elements or aspects...

PUBLIC EXPRESSIONS   Folding existing historic, design and cultural sites into the districtis a key public expression that reinforces the values that transcend marketing... Successful district-wide atmospheres transfix and transform and transport people in an overlay that begs to be expanded, that suggests movement and invitation...


Copyright 2004, ARTS ANSWERS. The 2003 Tri-Annual Arts & Cultural Corridors Study

Also, refer to another title, ARTS DISTRICT CHARACTERISTICS for over 300 identified potential users of arts-inclusive places.



A word book or dictionary for the special vocabulary of arts, design and culture-based destination districts, clusters, superblocks and corridors


Clear definitions and descriptions for our urban design, downtown redevelopment, city beautiful commission and general nonprofit and commercial Members. Limited Guest access is made available by our Membership Assn. underwriters, sponsors and co-sponsors. Many of the terms in this Lexicon have appeared in the text, MISSION MANIFESTO, a workshop companion volume written by Dr. Marshall Thomas. Others  have appeared in the periodical, ARTS ANSWERS and elswhere. All rights reserved, by the 7 Arts Foundation. Member Questions | Call Us: 7AF new all points number in Washington, DC: 202-2391257 | M-Th 10-4 EST; Sa. 10-12N EST.

Urban Design, Downtown Redevelopment Terms ||||||| under construction

ABSTRACT > A formally written summary statement encapsulating the important, salient points of a given text. 

ACTION PLAN > A way to express the vision by outlining the protocols and procedures used to implement a mission so as to achieve both long-term and short-term objectives. Such an outline takes into consideration, among many other items, the priorities of the group, the appropriate expressions for the group and ways the group can best use all its resources in intermediate expressions and actions. It can serve both a problem resolution dynamic and an expression imperative dynamic.

ACTUALISM > A term coined in 1968  by French writer Alain Jouffrey when accounting for the effect of revolutionary situations on art. Revolutionary events tend to dissolve the division between art and social reality, making its significance or irrelevance manifest. The test outcomes of these accountings have been interpreted and the generalized term has been folded into the concepts of Aesthetic Determinism.

ACTUALIZATION THEORY> The theory proposed by American psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow that individuals work towards becoming everything they possibly can. The fundamental imperative is a human need, a psychological imperative. Therefore, it follows that those who meet their basic physiological needs and their safety needs, grasp their belongingness needs and esteem needs, will work to achieve their self-actualization needs, a path to fulfilling full personal potential. A generalized view of the theory has been folded into underpinning concepts of Aesthetic Determinism.

ADAPTATION LEVEL THEORY> The theory posited by American psychologist H. Helson, stating that the neutral, adapted background provides a standard or benchmark against which new stimuli can be perceived. Helson refers to a level on a sensory continuum to which the sense organs have adapted; his theory has been applied and generalizaed to the field of Aesthetic Determinism, an area of study directly focused on how human beings' attitudes change in their  living and working environment.

ADMINISTRATIVE BOARD OR COUNCIL > A governing body of a nonprofit comprised of staff, members, founders and/or successors, and an occasional appointed individual. This administrative body focuses on policies, imaging issues, broad operating guidelines and procedures, public trust and fiduciary matters.

ADVISORY COMMITTEE > Individuals providing acclaimability, experience and/or expertise to support and edifiy a governing body of  a nonprofit organization.

ADVOCACY > Espousal of  a position, a viewpoint or activity.

ANGEL > An individual or family who invests, sponsors or underwrites an arts initiative or presentation with financial or in-kind considerations valued by a producer, developer, artist or a co-producing entity.

APPLICATION > Putting an idea to use or to fulfill a purpose for an organization. Bringing a general or figurative statement to bear upon one or more particular matters, or upon matters of practice. The action of bringing one's self to a task with diligence.

ARBITRATION > The procedure of settling disputes between members, or between members and customers.  

ARROW IMPOSSIBILITY THEOREM >  Mathematical modelling of a democratic process presupposes that a fixed procedure for 'aggregating' the preferences of a group of individuals into an overall ordering is necessary for the method to be scientifically accurate. Arrow's result: no such modelling procedure  is possible for a group larger than two.  Arrow's conclusions led Aesthetic Determinism scholars to seek a fixed procedure for 'aggregating' preferences wherein the procedure can satisfy the following natural conditions: Each individual in the study process can influence the outcome; the outcome can depend on preferences for irrelevant options; the procedure always produces an ordering; and, any universally shared preference can be reflected.

ART > Art distills sensation and embodies it with enhanced meaning in memorable form. Art is both an extension of life by means of simulated and ordered experience, and a discipline and language subject to judgment. [ BARZUN/1958]

ARTS, DESIGN OR CULTURE-BASED DESTINATION DISTRICT > A local arts, design or culture-based destination district is, by the latest consensus definition of the membership in the 7 Arts Foundation, a nonprofit or private regional organization, or an agency of a city or county government, which provides planning and developing initiatives, managing and programming services, assessing and financing support, much of it designed to attract, maintain and grow individual and collaborative arts, design and/or cultural pursuits that work to reflect the values, beliefs and ideals in a particular community or region. These desination districts are often invented to help foster the establishment of expressive elements--all made to be experienced--that define the district‘s boundaries, exhibit the district‘s commitment to its individual and institutional members, guests and participants. Their boundaries range from one-half square block to an average 4.5 square block perimeter. There are over twenty-five varieties of these destination districts in North America.











ARTS DISTRICT > Arts [1573 usage] + District [1526 usage]. 1) a number of urban sites unifed by a common purpose, by architectural and /or design elements or by other artistic or pragmatic criteria, i.e., business improvement, arts mission, or by space proximity to arts institutions; the sites generally complement one another by design or by happenstance, often the outcome of a planning, developing, administering, and/or a managing focus shared by one or more combinations of urban renewal or revitalization advocates, from the public, private, nonprofit, social and voluntary sectors. 2) the shopping, tourist and arts studio nexus, a cluster, superblock or corridor artscape usually found in urban downtown spaces and used by artists, designers, arts advocates, arts cultivators and arts-related suppliers and vendors working to meet the needs and desires of collectors, students, conservators, visitors and cultural tourists, peers and backers. 3) an urban renewal and/or improvement project overlay featuring revitalized living areas, working studios, shops, workshops, galleries, public spaces, re-invented parking lots and pedestrian-friendly areas (streetscapes) designed to improve or otherwise to reclaim a neighborhood or entire section of a declining or uninspiring downtown, often invented to stimulate commercial adn social activity for good and high purposes, and enabled to help connect people to their heritage, their customs, their traditions and their neighbors. 4) a cultural private/public enterprise with an arts initiative focus, a force for lively living and for good, a hopeful and meaningful way to offer residents and workers, visitors and cultural tourists an edifyingly enlarged understanding and appreciation of a designed arts treasure - described in terms that frame a regional or local identity; a place or destination that merits the awe-filled regard of guests for the values of a community shared in artful ways.



ASSESSMENT > A determination or valuation of real property, items of value, income, outlays, and, etc...

AXIOMATIC THEORIES >  Economic theories relating to consumer behaviour and rationality, essential parts of Consumer Demand Theory and Indifference Curve Analysis. Rationality axioms: completeness; transivity; and, selection. Behaviour axioms comprised in the  dominance axiom: continuity; and, convexity. The theories are folded into the concepts of Aesthetic Determinism.

BREAK-EVEN RATIO > Debt service + Operating Expenses/Gross Operating Income

BUDGET > A picture of values assigned to categories of expression or problem-solving actions which explain the priorities and the use of resources to achieve a specific goal during a defined time period. Such a snapshot can be used to reflect both the vision and mission of an organization in quantitative terms and as a tool to explain costs and expenses and income and contributions that are anticipated to occur during an interval of a specific length.

BUILDING RENOVATION > A campaign to raise money for de-construction, construction, renovation, remodelling or rehabilitation of a structure or space; the effort may be part of an organization's capital campaign.

BYLAWS > A formal document containing the rules of operation or code of regulations upon which a governing body and its members or constituents must rely.

CAPITAL CAMPAIGN > An undertaking, often extending over two to four seasons, to raise funds and/or underwriting to build a building or claim a corridor of  space, to endow a service within a designated facility or space, or to initiate such funded long-term programs or projects for lasting change.

CAPITALIZATION RATE > (Cap Rate): Discounting future income to determine present value; also, Cap Rate = NOI/Value of Property (See PROPERTY VALUE)

CASH FLOW [after taxes] > Cash Flow (before taxes) - Income Tax Liability.

CASH FLOW [before taxes] > NOI - Debt Service - Capital Additions + Loan Proceeds + Interest Earned.

CASH-ON-CASH RETURN (or, the Equity Dividend Rate) > Annual Cash Flow/ Cash Invested.

CHARITABLE > A broad legal or administrative description of an activity, organization or purpose which conforms to an applicable law or code prescribing charitable objectives and goals.


CODE OF ETHICS > Stated principles used by an organization to affect professional and ideal behavior by organization participants, including staff and governing body members.

COLLABORATION > Co-operation in shared work; hence, a concentration of people who work in conjunction with one another in a group or, less formally, those who work with or proximate to others who either share a common purpose or are self-aware of a role they play in the pursuit of a defined objective.

COMPOUND INTEREST > Principal at Risk x (1 + Periodic Rate) ^# of Periods

CONFERENCE/ROUNDTABLE/SEMINAR > Forms of gathering people of intelligence and intellect designed to engage them into entering into one or more authentic conversations about a topic, and thereby, helping them meaningfully contribute to the wealth of  knowledge, wisdom and understanding about the literature on the topic, the schools of thought devoted to the topic, the on-going and planned pursuits to explore the topic, the divergent views from those who criticize or otherwise discount the known approaches to the topic, etc...

CONSULTATIVE ASSISTANCE > A service line of an agency or firm whereby program, administration and management challenges are studied, a prognosis is made, a prescriptive course is outlined, and, if accepted by a client, a corrective or otherwise new course of action is undertaken, sometimes conducted under the guidance of the agency or firm offering the expression or solution.

Consumer Price Index (CPI) > A major inflation measure computed by the U.S. Department of Commerce. It measures the change in prices of a fixed market basket of some 385 goods and services in the previous month.

CONTINUING SUPPORT > A grant, bequest or other gift which affirms the renewed mission of the organization in regularly recurring intervals.

CONTRIBUTED INCOME > Value given to a nonprofit organization whereby the donor receives no direct or indirect tangible exchange of goods or services from the institution; a gift or transfer of value without a transaction.

COSTING OUT > The action by planners and critics wherein they attach monetary values to plan components along with assumed consequences, including nominal outcomes or benefits. Such a planning tool often serves as the basis for developing a budget.

CRITERIA > A unit or set of units of measurement that can help determine the level to which an objective or goal is achieved.


DEBT COVERAGE RATIO (DCR) > Annual NOI/Annual Debt Service Note: 1.2 is often a benchmark ratio for standard real estate purchases in districts; 1.3 is often the outside acceptable ratio for many conventional district real estate deals; DCR is an expression of the amount of breathing room that must be maintained between the NOI and the Debt Service.

DEBT REDUCTION > A deficit financing scheme designed to reduce organizational indebtedness, often accomplished by paying down mortgage, rehabilitation, renovation, relocation and/or remodeling projects, often without penalties from the lender.

DEPRECIATION ALLOWANCE (Annual) > Depreciable Basis/Useful Life; Note: With 1/2-month increments applied, as necessary... See a broker, accountant or banker for advice about how this calculation affects a district real estate transaction's attractiveness.


DESTINATION DISTRICT > A term coined by the staff of the 7 Arts Foundation to identify all the many varieties and configurations of so-called arts, design and culture-based urban districts

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM > An organized promotion of understanding, participation and support for a nonprofit organization, often with aspects reduced to capital campaigns, planned giving, deferred giving and endowment funding.

DIRECTION > A general, long-range path loosely describing the orientation of a nonprofit organization often delineated with policies, guidelines and general parameters designed to help participants to take actions and to target objectives.

DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW > The additive value of all discouted cash flows, including the selling price (see an accountant: this formual takes up more space than the publisher has allotted for all the formulas included in this Lexicon page.

EARNED INCOME > Value exchanged for direct or indirect benefits with a patron or member or other participant. Such a transaction must be an approved part of the vision so it properly represents the values and objectives of the group in addition to providing sustenance for the existence of the organization.

Econometrics > The application of statistical and mathematical methods in the field of economics to test and quantify economic theories and the solutions to economic problems.

ECV = [(PV x Pcs - C) Pas] - D  Model of a 2-stage arts, design and/or cultural destination district investment decision. A project's expected commercial value is equal to the Net Present Value of a project's future earnings (discounted to today) multiplied by the Probability of Commercial Success (given the destination success as determined in a table of factors influencing value) minus the Commercialization or Launch Costs, all multiplied by the Probability of Acclaimable Success (given in the acclaimability factors table), the sub-total minus the Remaining Development Costs. An evaluation of a destination arts-design-cultural district on its merit to produce a total. A pragmatic approach contrasted with traditional 'highest-and-best use' decision-making tools. Source: 7 Arts Foundation.

EMPOWERMENT > A form of participative management. The system is designed to give to give participants both management and decision-making responsibilities. Participative leadership and participative management schemes offer nearly parallel views of private, for-profit systems of organizations and work concepts.

ENDOWMENT > A fund or other valuable property intentionally invented to provide variable or steady income or another form of subsidy for a program, project or institution.

ENVIRONMENT > The action of environing - forming a shape around something, encircling it. Also, the conditions or influences under which a nonprofit organization survives, develops, expires.

EQUITY DIVIDEND RATE (or, Cash-on-Cash Return) > Annual Cash Flow/Cash Invested.

ESPRIT DE FINESSE > Cultural historian Jacques Barzun calls the idea mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal developed an intuitive understanding.  An observation without analysis, it is discerning view that grasps by inspection the whole character of an object or concept to understand it, to know it. This direct encounter lacks numbers, principles and definitions; therefore, to convey its essence to somebody else, a witness must use imagery and analogy to explain the whole view without hope of conveying a completely suitable explanation or obtaining a thorough agreement on the significance of the object or concept. Such mental finesse describes the work by which many priests, artists, arts educators, designers and advocates understand, recall and enjoy the high or holy expressions which serve as paradigms for their institutions.

EVALUATION > That phase of planning where an auditor or audit committee determines how efficient and effective the expressions and solutions offered by the group have been in terms of achieving one or more objectives. The efficiency rating is often a comparative statement with the basis determined by an average output or other normative indicator gauged within a field of similarly operating organizations. The effectiveness rating is often a pre-determined level of achievement based upon expectations and other factors agreed upon at the outset of each planning phase.

EXPENSES PER SQUARE FOOT (EPSF) > Operating Expenses/Gross Building Area (or NRA).

EXPENSES PER UNIT > Operating Expenses/Number of Units.

EXTERNAL FACTORS > A set of environmental forces over which the nonprofit has little or no control. Reflections on the impact to and the necessary corrective or avoidance contingencies of the nonprofit are a necessary and vital part of all planning.

Financial Instrument > There are two basic types: (1) a debt instrument, which is a loan with an agreement to pay back funds with interest; (2) an equity security, which is a share or stock in a company.

FOUNDATION > A nonprofit or member association organization often given special tax privileges because it serves societal, educational or other environmental needs as a catalyst for change through grants, loans, and in-kind services; part of the voluntary sector.

Fundamental Analysis > A method of anticipating future price movement using supply and demand information.

GAIN ON SALE (GOS) > The taxable profit on a property's adjusted basis and its selling price: GOS = Selling Price - Adjusted Basis (or, the Depreciation Adjustment Accumulations). 

GEOMETRIC BENT > What the mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal calls the way of analysis: a view claiming simple things as definable, not subject to change when they are discussed, and, therefore, items which can be represented by numbers or by explanations in scientific terms when they undergo a permutation. Sometimes, the reductive way certain leaders view the expressions, actions and operations of an organization.

GOAL > That portion of an objective which results in a figurative or concrete achievement, accomplishment or level of fulfillment properly expressed as a discernable increase or decrease in a value which is stated in proprtion to the resources used to obtain a desired outcome. For example, an increase in attendance or participation that results from 'x' number of specific people getting the word out without a certain timeframe and in a definite way to a particular constituency at 'y' cost (money, materials, space, perhaps opportunity cost) to the group. Sports analogy, with apologies to our arts and urban revitalization advocates: the objective of a game is to win; a goal is to outscore an opponent.

GRANT > A valuable consideration offered in the form of a gift of money, real property or securities or in an in-kind form of subsidy.

GROSS BUILDING AREA (GBA) > Total area of all floors, including basement space; This is a useful calculation when the district project needs to demonstrate the growth of arts corridor buildings being assimilated, or being constructed. The outcome can be compared with the 'official' county or parish or province records.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) >  The value of all final goods and services produced by an economy over a particular time period, normally a year.

GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP) > Gross Domestic Product plus the income accruing to domestic residents as a result of investments abroad less income earned in domestic markets accruing to foreigners abroad.

GROSS OPERATING INCOME (GOI) > GOI = GSI - Vacancy + Credit Loss (See Gross Scheduled Income).

GROSS RENT MULTIPLIER (GRM) > GRM = Market Value/Gross Scheduled Income (Annual Basis); a calculation useful when a district project needs to measure a growth rate comparison for one or building capacities (See Market Value) from time to time.

GROSS SCHEDULED INCOME (GSI) > GSI for a given year = Total Rent Payable Under Existing Contracts for Occupied Space + Total Potential Rent (at the market rate) for Vacant Space(s); also called Potential Gross Income Calculation.

GROUP FOCUS > The centre of activity, or the area of greatest energy, of an organizational assembly.

GUIDELINES > A written policy or procedural outline that reflects the values, beliefs, assumptions, ideals and objectives of an organization.


INCOME/SQUARE FOOT (IPSF) > IPSF = GSI/Gross Building Area or NRA.

INCOME/UNIT (IU) > IU = GSI/Number of  Units.

IMPLEMENTATION > An action that carries out a plan, inclusive of any adjustments needed to take into account changing circumstances and conditions.


INFORMATIONAL ASSISTANCE > A service whereby an agency or firm collects data, digests it and disseminates it as information to subscribers or other beneficiaries.

IN-KIND SUPPORT > A loan or a gift of valuable equipment, supplies, materials, property or donor staffing. A reasonable assignment of value may be placed on such a loan or gift for the tax purposes of the benefactor and for the budgetary purposes of the beneficiary.

INSTITUTIONS > Tax-exempt nonprofit organizational entities which are not private foundations.

INTERNAL FACTORS > A set of forces, including space, human resources, funds, efforts and responses, over which an organization has some level of control.

INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR) > IRR = The Rate of Discount which makes the Net Present Value of a district investment equal to Zero (Consult with an accountant or banker, inasmuch as this formula is best calculated using a computerized model).

JOINT VENTURE > A purpose which is shared by6 two or more nonprofit organizations undertaken with shared responsibilities, liabilities and / or authority.

LAGGING INDICATORS > Market indicators showing the general direction of the economy and confirming or denying the trend implied by the leading indicators. Also referred to as concurrent indicators.


LAW OF ATTRACTION >  Psychological term refers to the empirical evidence indicating that people who appreciate one another will position themselves closer together than those who demonstrate no particular liking for each other. Concept folded into the studies associated with Aesthetic Determinism.

LAW OF DEMAND > The relationship between product demand and price.

LEADING INDICATORS > Market indicators that signal the state of the economy for the coming months. Some of the leading indicators include: average manufacturing workweek, initial claims for unemployment insurance, orders for consumer goods and material, percentage of companies reporting slower deliveries, change in manufacturers' unfilled orders for durable goods, plant and equipment orders, new building permits, index of consumer expectations, change in material prices, prices of stocks, change in money supply.

LOAN-TO-VALUE RATIO (LTV) > LTV = Loan Amount/Lesser of District Propert's Appraised Value or the Actual Selling Price.

LOSS RATIO (LR) > LR = Common Area(s)/GBA; A useful formula for whenever a project can show that more and more Common Area (s) are being converted into Usable Square Footage (USF). 

MANAGEMENT CIRCLE > A functional means toward providing both organizational and spiritual leadership for a nonprofit or for an area of program or project work within an institution through which members, guests, participants and other constituents interface, thereby establishing a mission, confirming a vision covenant and enabling an organization to facilitate movement toward fulfilling a vision.

MARKET VALUE (MV) > MV = GRM x Gross Scheduled Income (when GSI is calculated on an annual basis).

MAXIMUM LOAN AMOUNT (MLA) > MLA = NOI/Debt Coverage Ratio/Mortgage Constant; This equation often assumes 12 payments per annum; see NOI and see DCR.

MONEY SUPPLY > The amount of money in the economy, consisting primarily of currency in circulation plus deposits in banks: M-1—U.S. money supply consisting of currency held by the public, traveler's checks, checking account funds, NOW and super-NOW accounts, automatic transfer service accounts, and balances in credit unions. M-2—U.S. money supply consisting of M-1 plus savings and small time deposits (less than $100,000) at depository institutions, overnight repurchase agreements at commercial banks, and money market mutual fund accounts. M-3 —U.S. money supply consisting of M-2 plus large time deposits ($100,000 or more) at depository institutions, repurchase agreements with maturities longer than one day at commercial banks, and institutional money market accounts.

MORTGAGE PAYMENT/MONTHLY CONSTANT (MP/MC) > MP/MC = Monthly Payment = Present Value x Mortgage Constant (monthly basis); See an accountant or banker or broker, inasmuch as this formula is best calculated using a computer model.

MUNICIPAL BONDS > Debt securities issued by state and local governments, and special districts and counties.


NET INCOME MULTIPLIER (NIM) > NIM = 1/Market-driven Cap Rate; see Present Value.

NET OPERATING INCOME (NOI) > NOI = GSI - Vacancy + Credit Loss = GOI - Operating Expenses. NOI is the ability of a property to produce income before financing.

NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV) > Present Value of all Future Cash Flows - Initial Cash Investment.

NOT-FOR-PROFIT > In general usage, a term often understood as interchangeable with the designation for a charitable organization. In legal parlance, a term referring to specific activities designed to meet purposes other than to generate a profit.

NONPROFIT > A formal designation for a charitable or other organization with the responsibility to uphold the public trust by engaging in activities which encourage diversity, foster experimentation or quality results often needing protection from market forces and which nurture or edify participatns and constituents, if any, toward increasing levels of personal growth. In no instances are any such organizations properly conceived or operated as business ventures. Such organizations are often exempt from all but unrelated business income taxes. Donations to nonprofits may be tax deductible to the extent of the provisions of the tax codes.

OBJECTIVE > An overarching purpose to be achieved by executing an expression, a solution or another action or sequence of actions. A related group of achieved goals can culminate in completed objective.

OPERATING EXPENSE RATIO (OER) > OER = Operating Expense/Gross Operating Income.

ORGANIZED ABANDONMENT > The concept for nonprofits which delineates the responsibilities of a governing body of an institution to members, participants and the general public whereby the nonprofit decides to cease operating under its official charter because of one or more of the following: 1) the organization can no longer justify its mission or missions; 2) the organization is faced with competition from another organization which is providing similar services or products with greater net benefit to the organization's target community; or, 3) the need for the services or products offered no longer exists. The work by which the organization closes its operations is a considered and deliberate action taken by a governing body as a matter of integrity made as a standard-bearer of the public trust.

PLAN DEFERRAL > The act of stopping or pausing amid implementation of an action plan. Such a change is often caused by unforeseen changes in base assumptions or in the range of external, often fluid, circumstances deemed acceptable by the group in its Mission Statement.

PRESENT VALUE (PV) of Future Cash Flow > PV = Future Cash Flow/[(1 + i)n]. Wherein 'i' = Interest rate per period, and the exponent 'n' = number of periods; also expressed as PV = NIM x NOI.

PRICE/SQUARE FOOT (PPSF) > PPSF = Price/Gross Building Area (GBA) or Net Rentable Area (NRA).

PRICE, INCOME & EXPENSES/UNIT (PIE/U) > PIE/U = Property Price/Number of Units; Calculates the  Income/Unit & Expenses/Unit).

PRIME RATE > Interest rate charged by major banks to their most creditworthy customers.

PRINCIPAL BALANCE/BALLOON PAYMENT, or the annuity > Described as the PV of an Annuity = Loan Payment/Mortgage Constant for rate & remaining term; or, as the PV of the Annuity when A x (1 + i)^n - (Pmt/i) x [(1 x i)^n - 1].

PRINCIPAL & INTEREST per PERIOD > Often described as the Interest/Principal Breakdown for a given year, when the interest portion of a payment = the Outstanding Balance x Periodic Rate, and the Principal Portion of a Payment = the Payment Amount - Interest Portion. See an accountant or broker or banker, inasmuch as this formula is best calculated using a computer model.

PROFITABILITY INDEX (PI) > PI = Present Value of all Future Cash Flows/Initial Cash Investment. Note the Outcomes as follows in terms of a rule of thumb: 1.0 = Goal achieved; 1.+ = Goal exceeded; O.+ = Goal missed.

RATE OF GROWTH (ROG) > ROG = 72 /Number of Years the project will take to Double in Value (c.). Also, see Rule of 72.

RE-ENGINEERING > A restructuring of roles, lines of authority, communications and responsibility undertaken to improve the way an organization functions to accomplish pre-determined objectives. The management concept often emphasizes downsizing or streamlining all operations with little otr no loss of technically defined effectiveness while the organization focuses on lowering costs to constituents and adding returns to the organization. Oftimes, changes involve innovative uses of techne.

REFLECTION > Fixing thoughts on a subject: meditation, prayer, perambulation, deep or other serious consideration offered so an organization has knowledge of itself , its operations and its environemnt, or so the organization deals with ideas received by sensation and perception.

RELATED ACTIVITY > A program or project which further the purposes of a nonprofit organization.

RENTABLE SQUARE FOOTAGE (RSF) > Always defined by locally accepted Leasehold terms; often computed as USF + an Allocated Portion of the Common Area(s). This calculation is useful when rental rates are flat or dropping and the developer still needs to demonstrate real growth to participants in a district real estate scheme.

RETURN ON EQUITY (ROE) > ROE = Cash Flow (after taxes)/Initial Cash Investment; also described as ROE = Cash Flow (after taxes)/Resale Value - Mortgage Balance Owed.

ROI > Return-on-investment

RULE of 72 > The number of Years Required to Double the Cash Value (approximate) = 72/Rate of Growth; see also, Rate of Growth.

SALE PROCEEDS (SP or, Take Home or Before Tax Recovery) > SP = Selling Price - Cost of Sale - Mortgage Payoff

THE 7 ARTS > The disciplines and expressions found in music, dance, theatre, literature, the fine arts, the applied arts and the illuminated arts (film, videography, still photography).

SIMPLE INTEREST > Principal at Risk x Interest Rate x Time.


STRATEGY > A consciously conceived series of related goals, policies, expressions and guidelines meant to tactically set the defined paramenter for achieving an objective.



SUPPLY, LAW OF > The relationship between product supply and its price.

TAKE HOME (TH, or Sales Proceeds, or Before Tax Recovery > TH = Selling Price - Cost of Sale - Mortgage Payoff.

TAXABLE INCOME (TI) > TI = NOI - Mortgage Interest - [Depreciation on Real Property + Equipment Depreciation + Capital Additions + Amortization + Points + Closing Points + Interest Earned].

TEAMS > An organizational management technique devised to improve the productivity, attitude and job performance of aninvented work circle. The technique often stresses clarifying team goals and sharing expectations among team members. The team building technique is part of a coaching method,not to be confused with supervisory methods, called Team Management.

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE > A service line, including networking, training, publishing, producing and directing help offered to practitioners and advocates, leaders and educators and their institutions; often, the area of help is in specialties requiring expertise or arcance bodies of data which an individual or organization uses only occasionally or which otherwise cannot afford to use often enough to justify an outlaty of valuable resources on a day-to-day or week-to-week basis.


TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT > A wholistic 14-point concept developed by W. Edwards Deming focusing on continual quality improvement. Continuous employee and docent training, total venture cooperation and an emphasis on pride of workmanship are the hallmarks of the Deming concept.

TRADE > A business activity undertaken to produce income from the sale of goods or the performance of services.

TRADITION > A reference to commonly accepted experience, knowledge, understanding and wisdom of an institution or of a specific group through a measureable period of time; a tool of intellect.

USABLE SQUARE FOOTAGE (USF) > Actual space occupied by owner(s) and/or tenant(s) - Common Areas. This description is useful when the developer needs to demonstrate a genuine upswing in occupancy rates.

VACANCY & CREDIT LOSS (VCL) >VCL = GSI x Estimated % Vacancy + Credit Loss.

VALUE OF PROPERTY > Described as the NOI/Cap Rate.


YIELD > A measure of the annual return on an investment. 

YIELD CURVE > A chart in which the yield level is plotted on the vertical axis and the term to maturity of debt instruments of similar creditworthiness is plotted on the horizontal axis. The yield curve is positive when long-term rates are higher than short-term rates.


The quality of a most comprehensive inquiry rests in the questions asked and only rarely in the answers provided. --- Excerpt, MISSION MANIFESTO, co-published with the 7 Arts Foundation, copyright 1995, by Marshall A. Thomas III

WHO WE SERVE: A Select list of governments, corporations, foundations, institutions, universities, studios... more. Updated Weekly.


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